THE MMSE-2 IS NOW AVAILABLE
Marshal F. Folstein, MD, Susan E. Folstein, MD and Paul R. McHugh, MD
The MMSE is a brief, quantitative measure of cognitive status in adults. It may be used to screen for cognitive impairment, to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment at a given point in time, to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, and to document an individual's response to treatment.
The standard MMSE form published by PAR is based on its original 1975 conceptualisation, with minor subsequent modifications by the authors. The MMSE has demonstrated validity and reliability in psychiatric, neurologic, geriatric and other medical populations. The convenient all-in-one test form includes a detachable sheet with stimuli for the Comprehension, Reading, Writing, and Drawing tasks. The form also includes alternative item substitutions for administration in special circumstances.
The pocket-size User's Guide provides detailed instructions for standard administration and scoring for each MMSE task, as well as recommended cut-off scores for use in classifying the severity of cognitive impairment. This handy pocket guide also provides population-based normative data (by age and years of education), which are useful for comparing an individual's MMSE Total score with the appropriate reference group, or when interpreting the scores of individuals who are illiterate, who have had less than 9 years of schooling, or who are age 80 years or older.
The MMSE Clinical Guide with Pocket Norms Card describes the development, validation, administration and interpretation of the MMSE. Normative data (T scores) for age and education groups are provided in the Appendix, as a supplement to the traditional interpretation of the MMSE raw scores.
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