Personality Assessment Inventory pai-pai-plus

Author: Leslie C. Morey, PhD

For: Assessment of adult psychopathology in ages 18 years and older

Reading Level: Adult

Format: Paper-and-Pencil, PC Based Software; Online (via PARiConnect)

Length: 50-60 minutes

Scoring: Hand Scored; Computer Scored; or Online

Please see our FAQ before ordering e-Manuals.

PAI Plus is an updated way to interpret PAI data - Online via PARiConnect and Software update

PAI Plus Software update available now

Online Forms, Administrations and Reports


PAI online Public Safety Selection Report (each) min order 5

For use in PARiConnect online account. Minimum order 5. Selection reports provide scores, profiles and interpretive text based on response data from an i-Admin or a paper-and-pencil assessment.
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PAI online i-Admin (each) min order 5

For use in PARiConnect online account. Minimum order 5. i-Admins provide on-screen test administration, either in your office or remotely. Reports are purchased separately.
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PAI/PAI Plus online Interpretive Report (each) min order 5

For use in PARiConnect online account. Minimum order 5. Interpretive reports provide scores, profiles and interpretive text based on response data from an i-Admin or a paper-and-pencil assessment.
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PAI/PAI Plus online Score Report (each) min order 5

For use in PARiConnect online account. Minimum order 5. Score reports provide scores and profiles based on response data from an i-Admin or a paper-and-pencil assessment.
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Paper Forms and Hand Scoring Materials


PAI Administration Folio

Holds item booklet and answer sheet - no other writing surface necessary
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PAI Adult Profile Forms (25) – Revised

Pack of 25
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PAI Critical Items Forms (25)

Pack of 25
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PAI Hand Scorable Answer Sheets (25)

Pack of 25
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PAI Hardcover Reusable Item Booklet

For administration of PAI Form Hand-Scorable Answer Sheets. Compatible with Administration Folio
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PAI Softcover Reusable Item Booklets (10)

8.5 x 11" format. For administration with Hand-Scorable (1875-AS) or Scannable (4154-SS) Answer Sheets (sold separately) Pack of 10.
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PAI Structural Summary Forms – Revised (25)

Pack of 25
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PAI Professional Manual, 2nd Edition

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PAI Plus Manual Supplement (Hard Copy)

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PAI e-Manual

Please see our FAQ before ordering e-Manuals.
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PAI Plus e-Manual Supplement

Please see our FAQ before ordering e-Manuals.
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PAI Casebook for the PAI: A Structural Summary Approach, Hardcover

Enhances PAI client assessments. 278 pages (2007).
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PAI Interpretive Guide to the PAI, Hardcover

Hardcover book. 308 pages (1996).
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PAI Audio Administration – CD ROM

Self-administered CD-ROM for use with individuals who have limited reading skills or who might otherwise benefit from an audio presentation of the inventory. Directions to the client and the 344 items are presented on the CD-ROM. Includes a 7-second delay for marking each response on the PAI hand scorable answer sheet. (1 hour).
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PAI Comprehensive Kit

Kit includes PAI Professional Manual 2nd Edition, 2 Hardcover Reusable Item Booklets, 2 Administration Folios, 25 Hand-Scorable Form Answer Sheets, 25 Profile Forms Adults-Revised and 25 Critical Items Forms-Revised. Plus, this kit includes a certificate fo 5 FREE PAI Interpretive Reports on PARiConnect!
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Sample Reports

Sample PAI PARiConnect Score Report
PAI Clinical Interpretive Report
Sample PAI PARiConnect Clinical Report
Sample PAI PARiConnect Correctional Report
Sample PAI PARiConnect Law Report

***New - PAI Plus software update available now***

PAI® Plus available via PARiConnect online scoring and PAI scoring software update!

The PAI Plus takes the existing PAI items and gives users an updated way to interpret the data. Using the PAI, an objective inventory of adult personality, the new report offers:

  • DSM-5® update: Updated diagnostic possibilities align with the criteria.
  • Alternative Model Profile: An optional new profile scores in accordance with the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders.
  • Additional supplemental indices: Based on years of academic research, 15 new supplemental indices provide additional profile information related to negative and positive distortion and random responding. Supplemental clinical indicators provide profile information related to suicidality, aggression, level of care, presence of ADHD, and more.
  • Context-specific norm groups: Including profile overlays for bariatric surgery candidates, child custody evaluations, chronic pain patients, college students, deployed military, egg donors/gestational carriers, motor vehicle accident claimants, police applicants, and potential kidney donors. This profile is overlayed onto the examinee’s profile to allow for comparison.
  • Updated report: An updated look and feel create a streamlined and modern-looking report.

A manual supplement details the research, theory, and development behind this update. The PAI Plus Manual Supplement only covers additions found in this version of the report. Purchase of the PAI Professional Manual, 2nd Ed. is recommended.

Contact PAA today to set up your PARiConnect online account to utilise online administration, scoring and reporting.

Related Products:

PAI-SP (Software Portfolio) The PAI-SP is a powerful diagnostic and interpretive system that offers a variety of modules to meet your specific assessment needs. The PAI-SP provides a common framework of basic functionality and features to all enabled PAI modules. This functionality includes navigation tools, file handling, report editing, and remote (telephone and Internet) updating for the on-screen administration counters.
PAI-A (Adolescent)
PAI-A SP (Adolescent Software Portfolio)
PAI-CS (Correctional Settings)


The PAI continues to raise the standard for the assessment of adult psychopathology. This objective inventory of adult personality assesses psychopathological syndromes and provides information relevant for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and screening for psychopathology. Since its introduction, the PAI has been heralded as one of the most important innovations in the field of clinical assessment.

PAI Scales and Sub-scales

The 344 PAI items constitute 22 non-overlapping scales covering the constructs most relevant to a broad-based assessment of mental disorders: 4 validity scales, 11 clinical scales, 5 treatment scales, and 2 interpersonal scales. To facilitate interpretation and to cover the full range of complex clinical constructs, 10 scales contain conceptually derived sub-scales.

The PAI Clinical scales were developed to provide information about critical diagnostic features of 11 important clinical constructs. These 11 scales may be divided into three broad classes of disorders: those within the neurotic spectrum, those within the psychotic spectrum, and those associated with behaviour disorder or impulse control problems.

The Treatment scales were developed to provide indicators of potential complications in treatment that would not necessarily be apparent from diagnostic information. These five scales include two indicators of potential for harm to self or others, two measures of the respondent's environmental circumstances and one indicator of the respondent's motivation for treatment.

The Interpersonal scales were developed to provide an assessment of the respondent's interpersonal style along two dimensions: a warmly affiliative versus a cold rejecting style and a dominating/controlling versus a meekly submissive style. These axes provide a useful way of conceptualising many different mental disorders: persons at the extremes of these dimensions may present with a variety of disorders. A number of studies provide evidence that diagnostic groups differ on these dimensions.

The PAI includes a Borderline Features scale and an Antisocial Features scale. Both of these scales specifically assess character pathology. The Borderline Features scale is the only PAI scale that has four sub-scales, reflecting the factorial complexity of the construct. The Antisocial Features scale includes a total of three facets: one assessing antisocial behaviours, and the other two assessing antisocial traits.

No Scoring Keys Needed

Clients with 4th-grade reading skills may usually complete the PAI in less than 1 hour, rating each of the 344 items on a 4-point scale ranging from False, Not at all true, to Very true. Responses are entered on a 2-part carbonless Answer Sheet. The bottom page of the Answer Sheet provides scores for all 344 items. Scales and subscales may be hand scored in only 15-20 minutes.

For situations where no desk or tabletop is available, the handy PAI Administration Folio holds both the Item Booklet and Answer Sheet and provides a hard surface so your clients may easily complete the inventory.

The PAI Software Portfolio (PAI-SP) provides comprehensive, useful and accurate 10-15 page PAI Clinical Interpretive Reports or 2-4 page PAS Score Reports.

Interpreting PAI Test Results

To provide interpretation relative to the standardisation sample of 1,000 community-dwelling adults, PAI scale and subscale raw scores are translated to T scores. Transformed T scores have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, so that T-score values greater than 50 are above the mean in comparison to scores of individuals in the standardisation sample. Therefore, T scores greater than or equal to 70 (2 standard deviations above the mean) will quickly alert you to a pronounced deviation from typical responses of adults in the normative sample.

The Profile Form Adults-Revised allows you to rapidly translate raw scores to T scores and plot the pattern of test results and it also contains a blue line demarcating the distribution of scores for a large sample of clinical cases. This feature facilitates comparison of an individual's scores with those in the clinical sample.

Critical Items

The Critical Items Form-Revised lists 27 items (distributed across nine content areas) that suggest behaviour or psychopathology that may demand immediate attention. They are identified as critical based on two criteria: indications of a potential crisis situation and a very low endorsement rate in normal individuals.

Reliability and Validity

Reliability and validity are based on data from a U.S. census-matched normative sample of 1,000 community-dwelling adults (matched on the basis of gender, race and age), a sample of 1,265 patients from 69 clinical sites, and a college sample of 1,051 students.

Because the PAI was normed on adults in a variety of clinical and community settings, profiles may be compared with both normal and clinical populations. Combined-gender normative data are provided. Reliability studies indicate that the PAI has a high degree of internal consistency across samples -results are stable over periods of 2-4 weeks (median a and test-retest correlations exceed .80 for the 22 scales). Validity studies demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with more than 50 other measures of psychopathology.

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